Anne of Green Gables (Classic from the Americas)

I cannot remember reading Anne of Green Gables in my own childhood, but it came into consciousness when acquiring it, probably from the Beaudesert Library, for then 10 year old daughter, J. It has been a delight to now read it myself at the age of 66 years. Daughter, J, read several of the sequels, and the Emily books, as well.

Once again, I made an effort to get a lovely version of the book – this time, when unaccostomedly being in New York, trekking down 5th Avenue to the Barnes and Noble bookstore. There was a lovely pastel yellow leather-bound version with gold-embossed pages with ribbon bookmark, and beautifully laid out quality pages with some of the original illustrations. Having read this book, it is now dedicated to J’s little daughter, A – another generation of kindred spirits.

Lucy Maud Montgomery brings us orphaned Anne who arrives at Green Gables, the home of Marilla and Matthew Cuthbert, on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Anne is vibrant and optimistic and forthright, fully embracing her new life, inspite of her harsh earlier childhood years. We go on her adventures and misadventures, her growing up, her forging of friendships (and frenemies with Gilbert) and an invaluable family with Marilla and Matthew. She would be exciting and inspiring to the young reader.

Montgomery was able to draw on her own childhood which had many similarities, having lost her own mother very early in her life, and grown up happily with her grandparents, in a green gabled house in the village of  Cavendish on Prince Edward Island.  Montgomery was raised mostly by her Aunt Emily Macneill until Emily was married (when Maud was about 10 years old), and left the Macneill farm. Maud lived with her “grandmama”, Lucy Macneill, and grandfather, Alexander, except for ages 16 – 24: she lived with her father for a year in Prince Albert in 1890, took teacher training at Prince of Wales College and taught in Bideford, PEI, took classes at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and taught school in Belmont and Lower Bedeque, PEI. When her grandfather died in 1898, she returned to the Homestead to take care of her grandmother until her death in 1911. Her later marriage to a parson bore three children, Chester, Hugh (died in infancy), and Stuart; however the marriage itself was unhappy over a lifetime for both parties, both suffering from significant depression, and with the pall of the possibility of suicide over the ending of her life at age 67 years.

Outstanding features in the book for me are the deft use of the spoken word in conversation, of which there is much, especially from Anne! and the lovely, frequently very sensory descriptions of the surroundings, e.g.:

“I’m so glad my window looks east into the sunrising,” said Anne, going over to Diana. “It’s so splendid to see the morning coming up over those long hills and glowing through those sharp fir tops. It’s new every morning, and I feel as if I washed my very soul in that bath of earliest sunshine. Oh, Diana, I love this little room so dearly.

                                        ~

Anne was bringing the cows home from the back pasture by way of Lover’s Lane. It was a September evening and all the gaps and clearings in the woods were brimmed up with ruby sunset light. Here and there the lane was splashed with it, but for the most part it was already quite shadowy beneath the maples, and the spaces under the firs were filled with a clear violet dusk like airy wine. The winds were out in their tops, and there is no sweeter music on earth than that which the wind makes in the fir trees at evening.

                                         ~

  – a glorious October, all red and gold, with mellow mornings when the valleys were filled with delicate mists as if the spirit of autumn had poured them in for the sun to drain—amethyst, pearl, silver, rose, and smoke-blue. The dews were so heavy that the fields glistened like cloth of silver and there were such heaps of rustling leaves in the hollows of many-stemmed woods to run crisply through. The Birch Path was a canopy of yellow and the ferns were sear and brown all along it.

No wonder the island has become a tourist Mecca a hundred years later, as Montgomery evoked the beauty of the island through her books. Anne felt very communal with nature, as did Montgomery herself.

I have always loved Marilla in all her iterations – the book, and both the major film versions.

Marilla was a tall, thin woman, with angles and without curves; her dark hair showed some grey streaks and was always twisted up in a hard little knot behind with two wire hairpins stuck aggressively through it. She looked like a woman of narrow experience and rigid conscience, which she was; but there was a saving something about her mouth which, if it had been ever so slightly developed, might have been considered indicative of a sense of humour.

Marilla was born in 1824 in Avonlea, Prince Edward Island, to Mr. and Mrs. Cuthbert. She was raised there along with her older brother Matthew. A few years later after her birth the family moved to Green Gables, a farmhouse which was built by Marilla’s father.

In September 1830, Marilla attended Avonlea School. There she met John Blythe who was said to have been interested in Marilla once, and people called him Marilla’s beau. Unfortunately, they had a quarrel and Marilla never forgave him. She eventually came to regret it and likely would have forgiven John Blythe if she had another chance.

I have enjoyed the Scottish connection. On Prince Edward Island, the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%),  French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch (3.1%) descent. 

On Lucy Maud’s maternal side, following the maternal McNeill side, on WikiTree, her great-great grandfather came in Prince Edward Island in 1780. He had been born in Argyll, Scotland. 

My own ethnic origins include widespread Scottish connections in Scotland, the Orkneys and the Western Hebrides, on my Ancestry DNA. There are also many of my connections on both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, no doubt some arriving with the Scottish Highland clearances after Culloden………..no wonder I have always felt so Kindred Spirit with Pince Edward Island and the Anne stories……..

http://lmmontgomeryliterarysociety.weebly.com

The website of the L. M. Montgomery Literary Society is very Interesting. It includes a paper regarding ‘A Hundred Year Mystery’ of who did the original illustration on the front cover. It is regarded as now proved that the depiction of Anne is by George Fort Gibbs, an American author and illustrator. The internal book illustrators are credited as W. A. J. Claus and M. A. Claus, husband and wife, for the seven illustrations in the book. This paper also draws attention to that fact that there are collectors of various editions of Anne of Green Gables, and that Canada celebrated the famous novel in 2008 with a 100 year Anniversary edition, a fac-similé of the original in 1908……..I might have to acquire one…….

In Bed with an Elephant

 

Reading In Bed with an Elephant: A Journey through Scotland’s Past and Present by Ludovic Kennedy, 1995. This book is from Anne’s library; I recall her telling me years ago that she was reading it with pleasure.

Sir Ludovic was a well-known British broadcaster and a writer regarding miscarriages of justice. As a young child, he believed he was English, and was shocked and delighted to find he was totally Scottish, on both sides of his parentage. He inherited a Baronetcy via his mother following ancestor Sir Patrick Grant, the Scottish Attorney General, some 250 years earlier, agreeing to help subsidize the colony of Nova Scotia.

Ludovic gives a very easy-read interpretation of Scottish history, interspersed with his own life anecdotes. The elephant that Scotland is in bed with is England, as well as insidious anglicization within Scotland.

Wonderful opening paragraph, which explains why Highland hills, Island hills…my land hills, are as they are:

IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE ICE. IN PLACES THE ICE WAS TWO MILES HIGH. I’ll say that again: the ice was two miles high. It covered most of the northern hemisphere, it spanned the Atlantic. In America, it stretched as far south as the latitude of Washington DC, and in Britain, as far south as London. All of Scandinavia and of Scotland lay inert beneath it.

Warwick and I had Ancestry DNA done recently for this years birthday. I was surprised at mine, which had a heavy concentration of ancestry over the last few hundred years in Scotland, the Orkneys and Western Hebrides, Ireland, (no English dots!?!), all confirming the known family histories. What was the biggest surprise was the number of dots on Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, no doubt arising from the Scottish migration to those colonies from the late 1770s, again, no doubt related to the Scottish Clearances, after Culloden. For interest, I have found that there are plenty of Halleys in the current Nova Scotia phone book, and also in the Perth, Scotland phonebook. Love the link to Prince Edward Island, since providing the Anne of Green Gables books to Jenny nearly 30 years ago, and feeling kindred spirit with that island myself since….no wonder, fellow genes were calling….

With respect to more ancient genes, Scandinavian origins indicate the Viking inhabitations of the Orkneys, and Hebrides in the more modern gene alignments. There is  a little German coverage (one German great-grandparent). And 2% “European Jewish” confirming the research finding by Keith Halley, written in a letter to Anne forty years ago of the Jewish refugees from Spain to England many years ago. On relating this last fact to a Jewish friend recently, she was very unimpressed, shrugged, and said, everyone has got some!

For Auld Lang Syne

Dearest Readership,

Some or many of you may be uncomfortably breath-holding wondering when the heck this trip ends. Well, this is it, with a few final thoughts and references.

It has totally embellished my already unimagined-ly wonderful trip, to create and write this blog, and it also forms a modern-style keepsake of my own. I have paid for, and own the website until I decide not to, so I will not be closing it down yet, but at some point, may post my own reviews of TV and film favourites, usually that I am enjoying at the time. Anyone with a similar interest may also contribute. Please, if you need to, perhaps as exhausted as W and I became with the travel, jump off and “Unsubscribe” – no hurt feelings. Similarly, feel free just to continue. There will be a pause……Love to all those who hung in there and made the distance to here.

I could easily spend more time in Paris, I could easily see more in Scotland, would love to follow Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall, and ??? see the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and island hop the Inner and Outer Hebrides…….there must be genetic beacons still calling….perhaps I have inherited Anne’s Scottish fey – she, who was generally so rational, and of the Scientific Method, was also convinced (she did give anecdotes!!) she was endowed with the Scottish second sight.

Mum left a couple of pages of she and Hal’s plans (hand-written) for their drive around Scotland. Some will know, esp J, Uncle B, Auntie L, and G, that her hand-writing was outright cryptic, requiring great study and determination to translate. But I did translate, and know that she hoped to visit the graves of grandfather Halley’s father’s parents at the cemetry in Crief.

Day 5 – St Andrews to Perth or ? Pitlochry, over the Tay Bridge to Dundee. To Glamis and into Perth. Make Glamis a detour to get back and climb Kinnoull Hill on way into Perth. Ask about Cemetery.
Drive out to Crieff – Barvic, (? a small mountain stream) near there was where Charlotte McCulloch Halley was born in 1813.
Dunning, south of Perth, was where her husband William Halley was born.
Look for Halley in phone book.
Both are buried in Wellshill Cemetery, not far from the north-east corner.

Wellshill Cemetery is easy to find on GoogleMaps, no doubt the graves are too, with the north-east corner guidance. As Mum’s notes are prospective, I do not know if they ever found the graves….perhaps other family members may know, if it was discussed amongst them back then……

I would love to have seen The Great Tapestry of Scotland with its beautifully crewelled embroidery story of Scotland, many pieces, each forged by folk, recently, in different towns of the land into a whole.

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It is amazing to me that the population of Scotland is only some 5 million, yet the Scottish diaspora around the world is collectively 100 million!…..clever survival-ing stock whereever they are…there is a Scottish Diaspora Tapestry, too.

I ponder the skill of knitting, which Mum started teaching me as a very small child…..her mother, Susan, no doubt taught her, I am guessing her older sister may have taught her (although, it just might have been her step-mother). It may thus have been passed down to Anne Brown Lawrie by she and Susan’s mother, another Susan, née Brown. How far back might it have been passed down as a female skill, before it was really a male skill being passed down, Men knitting sea-worthy jumpers made from unscoured wool still containing lanolin……any-hoo, Jen, Rob, Tom, and extended family representatives, we are all looking at you to perpetuate that family skill into the next generations!! I think cousin RS and I are the holders of the skill in our generation, both of us still very active at it! CS reminds me that her husband, J, found Scottish family forbears who were Flax Weavers, resonating for her, with her own chosen weaving craft. Perhaps this skill proneness has genetically found its way from there to C…….

Getting a bit excessively sentimental and small tear-y, now…….unexpected later life loves……those exquisite hills of Scotland, its people, the pizzaz of Paris…my incredulous gratitude that the people of Scotland so graciously share their country with tourists literally crawling all over it in fresh waves each year for the last couple of hundred years.

Great idea, Mum, to do this, it has been fantastic fulfilling it……here’s to you (and your forebears) and Dad and your road trip of Scotland…. and ours…..and this small, hand-chosen, loved group of readers……..xxoo

 

 

Return to Edinburgh…..final moments

A final brief drive back into Edinburgh, an incident free return to Hertz renta-car, pretty much in the centre of the city, no dints on the car to report……so grateful to this iPhone/Siri/Maps, and Vodafone $5 a day. Know we could have had gps in the car, but they are often dodgy writing co-ordinates in, and…. Siri and I know each other…..

How did Mum and Dad do it 40 years ago with small-m maps!

Quick taxi back to our excellent Fraser Suites and Our Last Scottish Supper back around the corner in the Royal Mile.

We were able to have one land trip connecting our around the world ticket…..catching the Virgin East Coast train, from Waverley Station, Edinburgh, which averages 200kph and takes 4 1/2 hours, to London. It was lovely to have a quick comparative snapshot of English countryside. The transit, of a few steps from King’s Cross Station to St Pancras Station, was easy. The English Channel Tunnel was about 15 minutes of black tunnel, with sudden emergence into France, countryside, villages and homes of which, at least in this area seemed similar enough in style to that which we had seen in Britain.

Taxi from Gare du Nord to l’Hôtel was immediately hair-raising with taxi-driver manoeuvring impossibly deftly across a chaotic blocked intersection. I was able to bring out my French and say, “Monsieur, vous êtes brilliant!”, which started a conversation in French which took us all the way to l’Hôtel, the taxi driver explaining he only had school English, moi, only school French, and agreeing en français, that the traffic in Paris was second only to the chaos of traffic in Italy. He asked if my husband spoke any French….Non, zéro! Perhaps a little over-excited by now, I farewelled him with Nous Sommes Paris, Monsieur!”. (I mislead re W’s French…..he was adept at using Bonjour, spoken beautifully, and a version of Merci, which sounded like a southern United States drawl….  “Merr-cy!”. )

Using the French language has been the best fun…….

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Kelpies and Canals

 

It was a very quick trip from Stirling Castle to find The Kelpies, just outside Falkirk. These are jaw-droppingly beautiful tribute monuments to “Heavy Horses”, Scotland’s horse-powered heritage,  placed in the midst of the new canal developments. Again, it was a surprise to see the canals, as, although I had read of them, I had not thought we would come across any canals.

There are four main canal systems in Scotland, but we were by the Forth and Clyde canal. These canals were, in the past, part of the economy of the country, but fell into disuse through the last century. They have been progressively repaired and developed over the last forty years. So! One could have a wonderful holiday now sailing from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde. Also there is a bicycle path all the way adjacent to the canal. If only, in younger days…..

We did not see the wonderful Falkirk Wheel not far away, which LIFTS boats up or down 24 metres, connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal. Following the Wheel lift, boats need to go another 11 metres in two locks above the wheel, as the Union Canal is still that elevation higher.

Back to the Kelpies…..they sit beside a turning pool and extension. We found them a great tribute, no doubt commensurate with the immense contribution of Clydesdales to Scotland. It was very windy and cold when we were there, there being a large wind coming down from the Arctic!

Internet pics show how lovely they are lit up at night.

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Brief Segue in time and place…….

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I recall Anne Lawrie from time to time making Aberdeen Sausage. Anne was, I suppose, a simple cook, but always tasty, for the family. She was a regular cooker of a roast, beef, lamb or chicken, for Sunday lunch. In her kitchen, it was the lamb roast which raised the possibility of an Aberdeen Sausage, which would provide a tasty sandwich filling for my father’s lunches the following week. He found this item very moreish. My tastes as a child were too fastidious to accept what I would so happily have now. Suspect John was the same….

Auntie L reminds me that Granma Halley and other Auntie L were also regular makers of Aberdeen Sausage. The mincing of meats involved the cumbersome clamp mincer being attached to the kitchen bench. The boiling of the sausage for Anne’s recipe meant prior rending of an old white cotton sheet (I can still hear it!) into just the right size for rolling the sausage mince, and tying with string at each end. I am pretty sure that she used her pressure cooker for the boiling, shortening the usual 2 hours boiling.

There is no doubt that it was an Old Scots recipe, which came into Australia with many Scots migrants, so may have come into Granma’s household via Halleys, Lawries, or both.

The recipe is well described in The Schauer Australian Cookery Book, which very dilapidated book was my mother’s main recipe book. I believe either Auntie L or Auntie C gave Mum her copy when she married. The book was written by Miss Amy Shauer, with her cookery book resident in many Queensland kitchens through to the sixties. Miss Schauer’s biography is quite inspiring during the first half of the 20th century. If I was ever enquiring about a cooking question growing up Mum would always say, “Get the Miss Schauer!”

I think it is worth transcribing the whole recipe, substituting left-over lamb for beef, as that is what it was in our household (also described on Visit Dunkeld as “This is an old farmhouse recipe which used up the end of the barn”. (Isn’t that a quaint turn of phrase?)

Mince 1lb left-over lamb and 1/2lb bacon ends. Put into mixing bowl, add 1 cup of fresh breadcrumbs, 1tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce. Season with pepper and salt. Add 1 egg. 1 minced onion and carrot may be used. Mix all thoroughly together, turn onto a floured board, knead, form into a firm sausage. Place into a dry pudding cloth, roll smoothly, tie at each end, sqeezing the sausage into as small a compass as possible from each end. Tie tightly and pin cloth in the centre. (This tight rolling makes it firm for carving).

Place in a saucepan of plenty of boiling water. Simmer slowly for 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Take up, stand 5 minutes in cloth. Remove cloth carefully. Roll in dry breadcrumbs. Garnish with parsley.

The above was as Mum made it. Miss Schauer continues:

Meat such as raw minced mutton, veal, rabbit, chicke, etc., may be used instead of beef. The remains of cold corned beef are good used instead of fresh meat. Three sheep’s tongues boiled, skinned, minced and mixed in with beef or other meats is an improvement. 😳

About 1978, I bought myself a 1975 copy of The Schauer Australian Cookery Book, registered at The General Post Office, Brisbane, and printed and bound in Australia by W. R. Smith and Paterson, Kemp Place, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland. I also bought The Schauer Australian Fruit Preserving Recipe Book, as well.

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Stirling Castle

When driving through Scotland, there are castles every few minutes; many are in ruins, many are not, some have been highly associated with Scottish Royalty. So when choosing which castles to look at in detail, we chose those which were of most significance to Scottish royalty: Edinburgh Castle, Scone Palace, and Stirling Castle.

With more time it would have been wonderful to investigate Holyrood Palace and Linlithgow Palace, both steeped in Scottish Royal history and residence. Mary Queen of Scots was born at Linlithgow, and had residential apartments at Holyrood. Scottish kings moved to England in 1603, ending most Royal residence (although QE11 stays at Holyrood when in Edinburgh). Bonnie Prince Charlie, the young Pretender, was in residence at Holyrood for 5 weeks in 1745, and visited Linlithgow briefly, (the Duke of Cumberland destroyed much of it a year later for its Stuart and Jacobite associations), and Prince Charlie unsuccessfully tried to regain Stirling Castle in 1745.

The heyday for Stirling Castle was when it was a Palace, with great expensive embellishments and restorations by James V, initially for his first wife, Madeleine (French), who died only six months after marriage from consumption; then, for his second wife, Mary de Guise.

“he plenished the country with all kind of craftsmen out of other countries, as French-men, Spaniards, Dutch men, and Englishmen, which were all cunning craftsmen, every man for his own hand. Some were gunners, wrights, carvers, painters, masons, smiths, harness-makers (armourers), tapesters, broudsters, taylors, cunning chirugeons, apothecaries, with all other kind of craftsmen to apparel his palaces.”

The interiors are every impressive.

Poor James, having lost his first wife to illness, then lost his first two children with Mary, sons, 1 year old and 8 days old (dying 10 days apart), to illness. He then died of illness while away at battle, when his next born, Mary Queen of Scots was born.

Inspite of being French, Mary de Guise was well regarded by many Scots; she was regent on behalf of her daughter, from 1556-1560 when she died. She tried to keep her daughterr protected, and protect the countries’ Catholicism and Regency for her daughter.

The Castle also houses the Museum of the Argyll and Southerland Highlanders, deeply moving following the history of the regiment through to today.

 

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On the road again…..last day, Glasgow back to Edinburgh

The drive, Glasgow to Edinburgh, is less than two hours in all. There is a lot to fit in, on this, the last day in Scotland……first stop Stirling Castle, the bloody heart of Scotland, militarily of old, the most strategically important part of Scotland, gateway to the Highlands.

It is hard to describe the shock of excitement, after driving for a while, of seeing the National Wallace Monument striking itself out from a tree-covered hill.

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This is my photo at first sighting

The tower stands on the Abbey Craig, a volcanic crag above Cambuskenneth Abbey, from which Wallace was said to have watched the gathering of the army of King Edward I of England, just before the Battle of Stirling Bridge. The monument is open to the general public. Visitors climb the 246 step spiral staircase to the viewing gallery inside the monument’s crown, which provides expansive views of the Ochil Hills and the Forth Valley.

There is so much history in Scotland, but also millenia of atrocities carried out. Wallace, this 13th century hero was punished for his success at Stirling Bridge, with the standard hanging, drawing and quartering, boiled head on a spike and body on display at two different sites. The collective Scots memory did not forget…. What a striking, powerful monument erected in the 19th century. The thrust and power of National pride is evident.

The Old Stirling bridge, to be seen in photos in the next post, was built in the late 1400s, and has been closed to wheeled traffic since 1831. A series of wooden bridges stood there before, as in 1297 (Wallace’s Battle of Stirling Bridge) when the English were routed as they crossed, 2 by 2 horsemen. Wallace waited till there were about 2000 Government troops across before attacking, a number they knew they could defeat. The wooden 1297 bridge was 60 metres upstream from the 1400 Old Stirling Bridge, which we see today still.

Immediately after seeing Wallace’s monument, we took a wrong turn which placed us at a parking (and turning spot) at the base of Stirling Castle, adjacent to the remnant’s of Charles1’s garden. A surprise tound every corner.

 

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The FULL Scottish Breakfast!

Frequently, our accommodation included a FULL Scottish breakfast. Such is pictured below. Truly, this is what the full breakfast ALWAYS was!

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After having eaten haggis with dinner on two occasions, AND enjoyed it!, I have double checked the recipe ( deliberately didn’t afore, knowing globally that it was grim😒….the chief ingredient is ….A sheep’s pluck!…..ie., liver, heart, lungs…….can still manage haggis, and proud of it!

Moving on, I had accidentally read that black pudding – an essential ingredient of…the FULL Scottish breakfast…….was pig’s blood. Recipes seem to start with:

4 cups of pig’s blood…………😖………..🐖😪, so neither I, nor W, were able to accept black pudding on our breakfast plate, without regret, being already very self-satisfied about the haggis ingestion.

Neither of us are fans of tinned baked beans, and I do think we were being served the generic out-of-the-packet potatoe scones from the supermarket, recognized as not the best breakfast tattie.

So my breakfast plate was as above, minus baked beans, minus black pudding, minus tattie scone………. in other words, we arranged subconsciously to have a great Aussie grilled breakfast.

Suggested reading: How to cook the perfect tattie scones.

I am sure the home cooked tattie scone has endured, probably hundreds of years+, so this article ponders all the nuances of this traditional Scottish breakfast. I love it that the author (Scottish) loves hearing the family squabbles downstairs as an essential part of preparing to prepare the tatties………

A Day in Glasgow……The Mackintosh House

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With one day in Glasgow only, our cherry-pick was a walk along Kelvin Way past Kelvingrove Park to The Mackintosh House (or the Hillhead House) at the University of Glasgow. It meant missing the the Kelvingrove Art Gallery.  So much to see; however, it opened an hour later, so on a coin toss, we walked from our hotel on Sauchiehall Street along Kelvin Way to University Avenue, to the earlier opening Mackintosh House.

Kelvingrove Park has large statuary commemorating some of geniuses who have done their work at the University of Glasgow, Lord Kelvin, of Absolute Zero being -273 deg C., Baron Lister who revolutionized antiseptic surgery. The inventions and contributions to the modern world by Scots is truly staggering.

My awareness of  Charles Rennie Mackintosh started when W and I bought a Mackintosh Lamp, a first joint acquisition within the house.

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Charles built the (now restored interior) home we visited, for his wife Margaret in the style which they, with Margaret’s sister Frances and her husband, James McNair, developed. It was lovely to be immersed briefly in their style. More of Margaret and Frances exquisite work.

 

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We saw so little of Glasgow and its River and Firth, the Clyde.

Shipbuilders on the Clyde have built 25,000 ships since the first yard opened in 1712. At its peak there were 30-40 shipyards. Clydebank produce 370 ships in 1913. Likewise in WWll, it was very productive, but suffered severe damage from the Clydebank Blitz from Luftwaffe strikes. The homelessness of tens of thousands resonated for decades. Today, there are four shipyards left, one making advanced technology ships for the Royal Navy and other navies.

Hats off to Glasgow.